Automobiles for the 21st Century


Automobiles are machines that are used to move people around. In the 20th century, automakers were required to meet increasingly strict standards, which improved their safety, fuel consumption, and emissions. These standards now apply to almost every automobile manufactured in the United States. However, there are still some changes that need to be made.


This study examines advertising for automobiles, using data from the U.S. automobile market to compare outlays for automobiles that are better than average and those that are below average. It also conducts an intraindustry analysis, which avoids the bias introduced by multiple-product cross-sectional data. Still, there are some confounding factors that may impact the results of this study. One factor is the level of knowledge consumers have about the product. For example, if a consumer knows that the car is inferior to the others, they will not necessarily be willing to spend large amounts of money on advertising. Another factor that affects advertising is the price of a particular model.

Changes in controls

Since the early 1990s, the number of vehicle control modules has increased dramatically. There are now engine, transmission, body, and chassis controllers, as well as a multitude of small modules controlling specific actuators.

Safety standards

The Comprehensive Traffic Accident Analysis Center (CTAAC) conducts research and reviews safety standards for automobiles. The goal is to develop safe, advanced automobiles for the 21st century. A recent report by the Council for Transport Technology shows that recent improvements in automobile performance can lead to improved safety standards. The report suggests a few changes to automobile safety standards, including the abolition of the 6-month check required of private cars and allowance for periodic maintenance and checkups.

External combustion engines

An external combustion engine (ICE) consists of a combustion chamber that burns fuel and air and produces heat in an air-to-air heat exchanger. The combination of the air and fuel in the ICE creates an efficient energy carrier that transfers the heat to a turbine wheel. The ICE can be controlled using accelerator controls to regulate the amount of fuel burned and the amount of heat transferred to the air.

Body-on-frame construction

The body-on-frame construction method is an old, but still popular, technique used in automobile construction. It is preferred by most car manufacturers, as it enables quick body redesigns and changes without compromising the structural integrity of the car’s frame. This process also allows for reduced manufacturing costs, which translates into more affordable automobiles for drivers. In addition, body-on-frame construction allows manufacturers to subcontract some of the work they perform in the manufacturing process, which can make the entire process more efficient.

Seat belts

Seat belts in automobiles are an important safety feature. They protect the occupants from falling objects and injuries caused by car crashes. However, seat belts tend to accumulate dust and dirt over time. People tend to sit in automobiles for extended periods of time.